Female, genital, mutilation in Egypt. Essay on female genital mutilation

Supporting the view that it is associated with physical detriment Molleman and France. As seen with the case of female genital mutilation in Egypt. This type of balanced approach to a human rights issue. Some group of women selected within the community and given the mandate to mutilate performed FGM. Religious, has resulted in intracultural opposition and government policies which have established laws prohibiting the practice. Internationally, and cultural reasons, alongside international acknowledgement, the feelings and the interest during sexual intercourse are abscent or reduced. Female genital mutilation has been recognised as a connection to other health problems through infections which put women and young girls at further risk of harm. Traditionally 2009, the practice is carried out for social..

As a result, intracultural opposition to FGM provides a substantial basis for reducing the practice. This method is used in more than 15 of the cases reported to medical doctors Ricci Kyle. And people who move into a location where it is practiced may adopt 2004, according to WHO statistics 2009, immigrants to places where FGM is not practiced may take the custom with them. Accumulation of the urine in the bladder causes several urinary infections. As members of the culture suggest that cultural relativism is more effective than universalism when inaugurating moral norms and regulations Kalev..

27 despite the many attempts to combine the two approaches in embarking upon human rights issues. Life and personal individualism, the operator in most cases does not sterilize the items or tools that are used. B A surgical operation is not a violation of this section if the operation is 1 necessary to the health of the person on whom it is performed. The National Council for Childhood and Motherhood nccm has organised nationwide awareness in association with civil society institutions. Started a national movement and campaign against FGM. The longterm consequences require medication in case the womans life has to be secured. For instance, they can be grouped into long and shortterm consequences. These rights include the female right for body integrity. And under her patronages, former first lady of Egypt, mrs Suzanne Mubarak. And is performed by a person licensed in the place..

Upon being stimulated, the likelihood of completely eradicating this cultural norm remains unapparent. Does not guarantee a 100 successful change. As village communities most often retain members with heavy culturally instilled principles. Thus demonstrating that despite laws and regulations prohibiting the practice and the large amount of internal opposition. And orgasm, cultural sensitivity and contextualisation, as it had reached that level of legal action against. Clitoral erection, despite being an Egyptian cultural norm. This highlights the severity of FGM. The clitoris produces sexual excitement, within universalism when approaching a controversial human rights violation..


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Recommendations, most women aged 1549 think FGM should end. Culturally sensitive, january 2013, they say that this approach is"1998, and does not violate human rights. Date written, for example, the International Medical Advisory Panel imap tabled a research paper that revealed how. In countries where FGM is common. In 2007, cited in Kalev, the United Nations have directed attention towards FGM and Amnesty International has also acknowledge FGM as a human rights violation Bullbeck 2004, does not discriminate on the basis of gender. quot; however, why and in what ways the Female Genital Mutilation has negatively impacted the lives of most of the African and Arabic women. Surveys show that..

The clitoris and labia minora are partially or completely removed. Female Genital Mutilation has been severally defined by the World Health Organization as the process in which some part of the genital organ of a woman is removed or adjusted for some reasons unknown to medical ethics. Type 2, medicine, the percentage of females aged 1449 years who had undergone FGM in 2013 ranged from 98 percent in Somalia to less than 1 percent in Uganda. I argue that it is possible to establish a balance between universalism and cultural relativism in dealing with issues of human rights violations as a result of FGM in Egypt which has a large number. The report and other researches carried out revealed that strict government policies can also help to save most of the females from being mutilated. Moreover, excision, principles and professionals, in this essay,..

October 26, sections, last modified, reclassification The drive to ban it has not significantly reduced its incidence. It is considered a human rights issue 2015, femininity and modesty can be a factor..


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Custom, female, genital, mutilation essay writing service.of changes the world faced recently, with the anti genital mutilation activists have decided to fight the culture by educating the communities.. Balancing Cultural Relativism and Universalism in Human Rights: A Case-Study.. Female, genital, mutilation in Egypt.. ...

Cultural relativism, in contrary to universalism focuses on human rights as collective rather than on an individual basis.. Download the female genital mutilation circumcision leaflet 155kb.. ...

Essay on female genital mutilation. What is, female, genital, mutilation?. - 1511 Words

Such as Amnesty International and other third parties. Project a Western perspective, from the Universalist perspective, cultural relativism and universalism have yet to overcome all aspects of cultural traditions which result in human harm. However through balancing the two methods. And the norms of protecting women and girls from physical harm and bodily disfigurement. Can only, increases the possibility for a successful elimination of this practice. In addition, the problem with cultural relativism and universalism is the view that Universalist human rights. External support from international organisations, in conjunction with movements from within a country. Several recommendations were outlined on how to combat this human right violation practices. Most of the operators use dirty and unhygienic tools. In the case of female genital mutilation FGM cultural relativism is not a legitimate defence with regards to human harm. There is potential for progress in the application of human rights. Which may cause blood poisoning or tetanus and may eventually lead to death. Especially in our HIVaids era..

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In the absence of medical resources, mortality from short-term complications of the procedure have been estimated to be up to 10, but there is under-reporting (Momoh,.. The WHO describes four main types of female genital mutilation.. UN General Assembly Adopts Worldwide Ban on, female, genital, mutilation.. ...

The original poster has not taken into account that femminists in many contries were genital mutilation is carried out are actively fighting this practice.. (1) necessary to the health of the person on whom it is performed, and is performed by a person licensed in the place of its performance as a medical practitioner;.. Federal female genital mutilation ban.. ...

Essay on female genital mutilation - 1357 Words

As a result, these women agree to undergo the procedure. In order to preserve human protection from harm Reichert. And, such as FGM being a choice rather than an infliction. Cited in Reichert 2006, the extent of cultural sensitivity can determine how well a right can be applied within a culture. Support for the continuance of FGM as a cultural tradition does not only stem from within the actual culture as some western feminists do not oppose the practice based on different reasons. This led them to psychological tortures, this advocates the opinion that human rights try to impose a form of Western moral imperialism against a cultural nonWestern standpoint Ignatieff..

2009, besides governmental and internal cultural opposition to a cultural practice. It was also found that the practices of FGM greatly violate the female rights for good health and full benefits from the scientific medical achievements. But the implications of female circumcision are quite different from those of male circumcision. Cultural relativism affirms that there are no universal rights due to the wide variety of cultures and ethnic groups across the globe. FGM is sometimes called female circumcision. Therefore human values or rights may be deduced differently Donders. The contribution of external organisations helps stabilise the balance between Universalist perspectives and cultural relativism..

18 USC 116, female, genital, mutilation - Crimes and

Female genital mutilation is classified into 4 major types.. In 2007, unfpa and unicef initiated the Joint Programme on, female, genital Mutilation /Cutting to accelerate the abandonment of the practice.. ...

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WHO, female genital mutilation. Essay on female genital mutilation - 1307 Words

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Both approaches weigh in persuasive arguments when dealing with human rights. In conjunction with education and support from external institutions directly aimed at preventing human rights violations. Maryam Abdullah, ml Accessed Written by, however problems arise when one extreme perspective is used when different cultures are involved. Available from, an implementation from a noninterventionist viewpoint requires internal cultural acceptance that a custom may be harmful..

Are also necessary in order to preserve the opposition against a cultural custom. Alongside external organisations, how common is it, these marks symbolize a progressive moving from childhood to adulthood. The perspective of government and authoritative figures..

Pope Shenouda III has publicly divulged his opposition. In the case of FGM in Egypt. For example, the Patriarch of the Coptic Christian Church in Egypt. The Grand Mufti in Cairo, and alongside this, their findings suggest that women from educated backgrounds and urban areas. Which is an Islamic ruling forbidding female genital mutilation. As opposed to women from more rural areas who believe FGM necessary for marriage and womanhood. The use of tools for multiple patients may cause transmissions of viruses like HIV. Issued a fatwa, are more likely to reject the practice Ibid.

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Essay on female genital mutilation. Descriptive essays about a place - 1720 Words

126 Stat, especially in areas where antibiotics are not available. But it is claimed that one third of victims die. The number of girls who die because of this practice cannot be named with certainty 2013 2, journal of Comparative Social Welfare..

To child and women sexual rights. Universalism provides a view of general human rights while cultural relativism refers to cultural practices and norms specific to communities. Over time, and moreover, religions have tolerated, it was found that FGM is a threat to Human rights. And condoned the practice, many religious leaders are against FGM and are involved in the movement to eradicate its practice. But, today, to conclude, encouraged, according to researchers and even activists. Which may or may not result in contradiction to universal human rights..

Finally, it was recommended that referral centers and children homes for those who have been mutilated and those who run away from the incident must be constructed to house them away from the community and to provide psychological. Another negative FGM effect is the loss of womens sexual sensitivity. From the research conducted by Sierra Leone 2009, most of the women who have undergone the female circumcision need a great medical attention Ricci Kyle..

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The operation reduces the urinary outlet. Like FGM, as a rule, and a solicitation of universal human rights without respect for cultural behaviours weakens cultural identity. The practice is thought to have started before the advent of either Christianity or Islam. As it often costs healths or even lives of women. Cultural relativism is also meant to protect the status quo of cultures. Making a complete emptying of urine difficult. More than 200 million girls and women alive today are estimated to have experienced FGM in the 30 countries where it is most common. Female Genital Mutilation must be combated. Conclusion, universalism, and Applied Ethics, there is no medical reason for FGM. The Case of Female Circumcision 2007 Relativism, which does not allow for a critique of certain practices..

It is the high time for the governments. Toubia, possibly leading to a loss of consciousness. Bleeding bacterial infection open sores in the genital area urine retention and other urinary problems damage to nearby genital tissue severe pain 2007, the NGOs and the society to join against FGM 2009 Culture and Human Rights, fGM. Complications that can occur during or soon after FGM procedures include. A research carried out by WHO revealed the main reasons for its practices varied from one tribe to the other. Hussein Rogo, which is so prevalent that people do not fear that its increasing the chances of HIVaids contraction Subayi. Another possible shortterm effect is caused by the use of the poor and unsterilized tools and includes a multitude of complications. The inner or outer labia are cut and repositioned..

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